Structure of covid19

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integrative papers

GET 2020. Spiking Pandemic Potential: Structural and Immunological Aspects of SARS-CoV-2. Extract
  • GET ä. A guideline for homology modeling of the proteins from newly discovered betacoronavirus, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019?nCoV) Extract
  • GET 2020. Prudently conduct the engineering and synthesis of the SARS-CoV-2 virus Extract
  • GET ä. Structural, glycosylation and antigenic variation between 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Extract
  • GET 2020. Visualizing an unseen enemy; mobilizing structural biology to counter COVID-191 Extract
  • GET 2020. On the molecular determinants of the SARS-CoV-2 attack Extract
  • GET ä. Molecular characterization of SARS-CoV-2 from the first case of COVID-19 in Italy Extract
  • GET 2020. Novel 2019 coronavirus structure, mechanism of action, antiviral drug promises and rule out against its treatment Extract
  • GET ä. Genotype and phenotype of COVID-19: Their roles in pathogenesis Extract
  • GET 2020. Composition of human-specific slow codons and slow di-codons in SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV are lower than other coronaviruses suggesting a faster protein synthesis rate of SARS-CoV and 2019-nCoV Extract
  • GET 2020. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from asymptomatic carrier in Tokyo Extract
GET 2020. Properties of Coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET ä. Molecular basis of COVID-19 relationships in different species: a one health perspective Extract
  • GET ä. Structural, glycosylation and antigenic variation between 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) and SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) Extract
GET 2020. Structural Genomics of SARS-CoV-2 Indicates Evolutionary Conserved Functional Regions of Viral Proteins Extract
  • GET 2020. Systematic Comparison of Two Animal-to-Human Transmitted Human Coronaviruses: SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV Extract
GET 2020. Expanding our understanding of the role polyprotein conformation plays in the coronavirus life cycle Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 variants: Relevance for symptom granularity, epidemiology, immunity (herd, vaccines), virus origin and containment? Extract
  • GET 2020. The Importance Of Naturally Attenuated Sars-Cov-2 In The Fight Against Covid-19 Extract
  • GET ä. Evolutionary history, potential intermediate animal host, and cross?species analyses of SARS?CoV?2 Extract
  • GET 2020. Rapid reconstruction of SARS-CoV-2 using a synthetic genomics platform Extract
  • GET 2020. The continuous evolution and dissemination of 2019 novel human coronavirus Extract
  • GET 2020. The puzzle of sharing bio-molecular targets between coronaviruses and mediators of the cardiovascular system in humans: Looking for plausible hypotheses Extract
  • GET 2020. Novel human coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): A lesson from animal coronaviruses Extract
  • GET 2020. New insights into the evolutionary features of viral overlapping genes by discriminant analysis Extract
GET 2020. Cryo-EM Studies of Virus-Antibody Immune Complexes Extract
  • GET 2020. Isolation, Sequence, Infectivity, and Replication Kinetics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Extract
  • GET 2020. Comparative analysis of protein synthesis rate in COVID-19 with other human coronaviruses. Extract
GET 2020. Insights into SARS-CoV-2, the Coronavirus Underlying COVID-19: Recent Genomic Data and the Development of Reverse Genetics Systems. Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2: march toward adaptation. Extract
GET 2020. Role of RNA Guanine Quadruplexes in Favoring the Dimerization of SARS Unique Domain in Coronaviruses. Extract


GET 2020. Data stream dataset of SARS-CoV-2 genome. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genetic Analysis Tracks SARS-CoV-2 Mutations in Human Hosts. Extract
  • GET 2020. An updated analysis of variations in SARS-CoV-2 genome. Extract
  • GET 2020. Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes in Turkey. Extract
  • GET 2020. Analyses of spike protein from first deposited sequences of SARS-CoV2 from West Bengal, India. Extract
  • GET 2020. Identification of the nucleotide substitutions in 62 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from Turkey. Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 isolation and propagation from Turkish COVID-19 patients. Extract
  • GET 2020. Evidence for host-dependent RNA editing in the transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2. Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance in Taiwan revealed novel ORF8-deletion mutant and clade possibly associated with infections in Middle East. Extract
  • GET 2020. Virus strain from a mild COVID-19 patient in Hangzhou represents a new trend in SARS-CoV-2 evolution potentially related to Furin cleavage site. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genome Sequence of SARS-CoV-2 Isolate Cali-01, from Colombia, Obtained Using Oxford Nanopore MinION Sequencing. Extract
  • GET 2020. Rampant C-->U Hypermutation in the Genomes of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Coronaviruses: Causes and Consequences for Their Short- and Long-Term Evolutionary Trajectories. Extract
  • GET 2020. Phyloevolutionary analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Nigeria. Extract
  • GET 2020. Structural and functional conservation of the programmed -1 ribosomal frameshift signal of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Extract
GET 2020. Multiple approaches for massively parallel sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genomes directly from clinical samples. Extract
  • GET 2020. Rapid, Sensitive, Full-Genome Sequencing of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2. Extract
  • GET 2020. Full genome sequence of the first SARS-CoV-2 detected in Mexico. Extract
  • GET 2020. Corona virus versus existence of human on the earth: A computational and biophysical approach. Extract
  • GET 2020. Ten recommendations for supporting open pathogen genomic analysis in public health. Extract
  • GET 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2: virus mutations in specific European populations. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Point Mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 Genome. Extract
  • GET 2020. Multivariate analyses of codon usage of SARS-CoV-2 and other betacoronaviruses. Extract
  • GET 2020. Insights on early mutational events in SARS-CoV-2 virus reveal founder effects across geographical regions. Extract
GET 2020. The Prediction of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes: hsa-miR Databases Identify 7 Key miRs Linked to Host Responses and Virus Pathogenicity-Related KEGG Pathways Significant for Comorbidities. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genomic surveillance reveals multiple introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into Northern California. Extract
  • GET 2020. Molecular epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in Faisalabad, Pakistan: A real-world clinical experience. Extract
  • GET 2020. Mutated COVID-19, May Foretells Mankind in a Great Risk in the Future. Extract
  • GET 2020. The role of selectivity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus for human genetic profiles in susceptibility and resistance to COVID-19. Extract
  • GET 2020. Near-Complete Genome Sequence of a 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Strain Causing a COVID-19 Case in Peru. Extract
  • GET 2020. Coding-Complete Genome Sequences of Two SARS-CoV-2 Isolates from Egypt. Extract
  • GET 2020. Complete Genome Sequence of SARS-CoV-2 in a Tiger from a U.S. Zoological Collection. Extract
  • GET 2020. Complete Genome Sequences of SARS-CoV-2 Strains Detected in Malaysia. Extract
  • GET 2020. Complete Genome Sequence of a Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Isolate from Bangladesh. Extract
  • GET 2020. Bat-borne virus diversity, spillover and emergence. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genetic variation in SARS-CoV-2 may explain variable severity of COVID-19. Extract
  • GET 2020. A Snapshot of SARS-CoV-2 Genome Availability up to April 2020 and its Implications: Data Analysis. Extract
  • GET 2020. RNA genome conservation and secondary structure in SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-related viruses: a first look. Extract
GET ä. The Architecture of SARS-CoV-2 Transcriptome Extract
GET 2020. Chaos game representation dataset of SARS-CoV-2 genome Extract
  • GET 2020. Chaos game representation dataset of SARS-CoV-2 genome Extract
  • GET 2020. Attenuated SARS-CoV-2 variants with deletions at the S1/S2 junction Extract
  • GET ä. An exclusive 42 amino acid signature in pp1ab protein provides insights into the evolutive history of the 2019 novel human?pathogenic coronavirus (SARS?CoV?2) Extract
  • GET ä. Identification of the hyper-variable genomic hotspot for the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET 2020. Novel Immunoglobulin Domain Proteins Provide Insights into Evolution and Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-Related Viruses. Extract
  • GET 2020. Virus-induced genetics revealed by multidimensional precision medicine transcriptional workflow applicable to COVID-19. Extract
  • GET 2020. A Novel Synonymous Mutation of SARS-CoV-2: Is This Possible to Affect Their Antigenicity and Immunogenicity? Extract
GET 2020. Discovery of G-quadruplex-forming sequences in SARS-CoV-2. Extract
  • GET 2020. Comparative analysis of Coronaviridae nucleocapsid and surface glycoprotein sequences. Extract
  • GET 2020. Analysis of RNA sequences of 3636 SARS-CoV-2 collected from 55 countries reveals selective sweep of one virus type. Extract
  • GET 2020. High-Coverage SARS-CoV-2 Genome Sequences Acquired by Target Capture Sequencing. Extract
  • GET 2020. Evidence for mutations in SARS-CoV-2 Italian isolates potentially affecting virus transmission. Extract
GET 2020. The impact of MicroRNAs (miRNAs) on the genotype of coronaviruses. Extract
GET 2020. Investigating the genomic landscape of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) to identify non-synonymous mutations for use in diagnosis and drug design. Extract
GET 2020. Genomic determinants of pathogenicity in SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses. Extract
  • GET 2020. A Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to SARS-CoV-2 Contains Natural Insertions at the S1/S2 Cleavage Site of the Spike Protein. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genetic cluster analysis of SARS-CoV-2 and the identification of those responsible for the major outbreaks in various countries. Extract
  • GET 2020. Genetic structure of SARS-CoV-2 reflects clonal superspreading and multiple independent introduction events, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany, February and March 2020. Extract
GET 2020. Unfolding SARS-CoV-2 viral genome to understand its gene expression regulation. Extract
  • GET 2020. Developing an ultra-efficient microsatellite discoverer to find structural differences between SARS-CoV-1 and Covid-19. Extract


  • GET 2020. Rigidity of the Outer Shell Predicted by a Protein Intrinsic Disorder Model Sheds Light on the COVID-19 (Wuhan-2019-nCoV) Infectivity Extract
GET 2020. Transmission electron microscopy imaging of SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET 2020. Photopolarimetrical properties of coronavirus model particles: Spike proteins number influence Extract
  • GET 2020. Coronavirus3D: 3D structural visualization of COVID-19 genomic divergence. Extract
GET 2020. Structural Proteins in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2. Extract
GET 2020. Electron Microscopic Investigations in COVID-19: Not all Crowns Are Coronas. Extract
renal virus-like structures are normal cell constituents
  • GET 2020. Electron microscopy of SARS-CoV-2: a challenging task. Extract img of read viral particles
  • GET 2020. Electron microscopy of SARS-CoV-2: a challenging task - Authors' reply. Extract
  • GET 2020. Novel Dynamic Structures of 2019-nCoV with Nonlocal Operator via Powerful Computational Technique. Extract
  • GET 2020. COVID-19: Structural Predictions of Viral Success. Extract

all the proteins

GET 2020. The Proteins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2 or n-COV19), the Cause of COVID-19. Extract
  • GET 2020. Shortlisting SARS-CoV-2 Peptides for Targeted Studies from Experimental Data-Dependent Acquisition Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data. Extract
  • GET 2020. Processing of the SARS-CoV pp1a/ab nsp7-10 region. Extract
  • GET 2020. Sars-CoV-2 Envelope and Membrane Proteins: Structural Differences Linked to Virus Characteristics? Extract
  • GET 2020. Data and Text Mining Help Identify Key Proteins Involved in the Molecular Mechanisms Shared by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. Extract

primase complex

GET 2020. Structural analysis of the putative SARS-CoV-2 primase complex. Extract


GET 2020. Role of Nonstructural Proteins in the Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET 2020. Response to Ribeiro da Silva et al ,"Role of Nonstructural Proteins in the Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Extract

nsp1 protein

  • GET 2020. Combination of Biodata Mining and Computational Modelling in Identification and Characterization of ORF1ab Polyprotein of SARS-CoV-2 Isolated from Oronasopharynx of an Iranian Patient Extract

nsp2 protein

  • GET ä. COVID?2019: The role of the nsp2 and nsp3 in its pathogenesis Extract

nsp3 protein

  • GET ä. COVID?2019: The role of the nsp2 and nsp3 in its pathogenesis Extract
  • GET 2018. Nsp3 of coronaviruses: Structures and functions of a large multi-domain protein Extract
  • GET 2020. Molecular Basis for ADP-ribose Binding to the Mac1 Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3. Extract
GET 2020. A Putative Role of de-Mono-ADP-Ribosylation of STAT1 by the SARS-CoV-2 Nsp3 Protein in the Cytokine Storm Syndrome of COVID-19. Extract
  • GET 2020. Attenuated interferon and pro-inflammatory response in SARS-CoV-2-infected human dendritic cells is associated with viral antagonism of STAT1 phosphorylation. Extract

nsp6 protein

  • GET 2020. Evolutionary analysis of SARS-CoV-2: how mutation of Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) could affect viral autophagy. Extract


  • GET 2020. Nonstructural proteins NS7b and NS8 are likely to be phylogenetically associated with evolution of 2019-nCoV Extract


  • GET 2020. Nonstructural proteins NS7b and NS8 are likely to be phylogenetically associated with evolution of 2019-nCoV Extract


  • GET 2020. Crystal Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural Protein 9, Nsp9. Extract

nsp13 protein NTPase, RNA helicase

  • GET 2020. SARS-Coronavirus-2 Nsp13 Possesses NTPase and RNA Helicase Activities That Can Be Inhibited by Bismuth Salts. Extract

nsp15 endoribonuclease NendoU

  • GET 2020. Crystal structure of Nsp15 endoribonuclease NendoU from SARS-CoV-2 Extract

papain-like proteinase 2

  • GET ä. Structural and biochemical characterization of SARS-CoV papain-like protease 2 Extract

replication factors

  • GET 2020. Emerging SARS-CoV-2 mutation hot spots include a novel RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase variant Extract
  • GET 2020. Structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from COVID-19 virus Extract
  • GET ä. The potential chemical structure of anti?SARS?CoV?2 RNA?dependent RNA polymerase Extract
GET 2020. A unifying structural and functional model of the coronavirus replication organelle: Tracking down RNA synthesis. Extract
  • GET 2020. Structure of replicating SARS-CoV-2 polymerase. Extract
  • GET 2020. A Structural View of SARS-CoV-2 RNA Replication Machinery: RNA Synthesis, Proofreading and Final Capping. Extract
  • GET 2020. Telomeres and COVID-19. Extract
  • GET 2020. Novel Coronavirus Polymerase and Nucleotidyl-Transferase Structures: Potential to Target New Outbreaks. Extract
  • GET 2020. Structural Basis for RNA Replication by the SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase. Extract
  • GET 2020. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the nsp12-nsp7-nsp8 Core Polymerase Complex from SARS-CoV-2. Extract


  • GET ä. Crystal structure of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein RNA binding domain reveals potential unique drug targeting sites Extract
  • GET ä. Comparative computational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein epitopes in taxonomically related coronaviruses Extract
  • GET 2020. Biochemical characterization of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein Extract
GET ä. SARS-CoV-2-encoded nucleocapsid protein acts as a viral suppressor of RNA interference in cells Extract
GET 2020. A proposed role for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein in the formation and regulation of biomolecular condensates. Extract
GET 2020. The ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 inhibit type I interferon signaling pathway. Extract

vacuolar interaction

GET 2020. The endosomal lipid bis(monoacylglycero) phosphate as a potential key player in the mechanism of action of chloroquine against SARS-COV-2 and other enveloped viruses hijacking the endocytic pathway. Extract

innate interference

virus secretion


  • GET 2020. Immunoinformatic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein as a strategy to assess cross-protection against COVID-19. Extract

receptor binding any target

GET 2020. Update on the target structures of SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review. Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 Evolutionary Adaptation toward Host Entry and Recognition of Receptor O-Acetyl Sialylation in Virus-Host Interaction. Extract
  • GET 2020. New Strategy for COVID-19: An Evolutionary Role for RGD Motif in SARS-CoV-2 and Potential Inhibitors for Virus Infection. Extract

receptor binding: trmpss2

  • GET 2020. Enhanced isolation of SARS-CoV-2 by TMPRSS2-expressing cells Extract
  • GET 2020. TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 promote SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small intestinal enterocytes. Extract
  • GET 2020. First comprehensive computational analysis of functional consequences of TMPRSS2 SNPs in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 among different populations. Extract
  • GET 2020. TMPRSS2: Potential Biomarker for COVID-19 Outcomes. Extract
  • GET 2020. Pancancer analysis of transmembrane protease serine 2 and cathepsin L that mediate cellular SARSCoV2 infection leading to COVID-19. Extract

receptor binding: trmpss4

  • GET 2020. TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 promote SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small intestinal enterocytes. Extract

receptor binding: grp78, g-proteins

GET 2020. COVID-19 spike-host cell receptor GRP78 binding site prediction Extract
  • GET 2020. (ang.)COVID-19 transmission through host cell directed network of GPCR Extract

candidate receptor binding DPP4

  • GET 2020. The MERS-CoV Receptor DPP4 as a Candidate Binding Target of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike. Extract

Uptake: cathepsin L

  • GET 2020. Pancancer analysis of transmembrane protease serine 2 and cathepsin L that mediate cellular SARSCoV2 infection leading to COVID-19. Extract

endocytosis membrane fusion

  • GET ä. Fusion mechanism of 2019-nCoV and fusion inhibitors targeting HR1 domain in spike protein Extract
  • GET ä. SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes through its spike protein-mediated membrane fusion Extract
  • GET 2020. A potential role for integrins in host cell entry by SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET ä. SARS?COV?2 and infectivity: Possible increase in infectivity associated to integrin motif expression Extract
GET 2020. Coronavirus membrane fusion mechanism offers a potential target for antiviral development Extract
  • GET ä. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses Extract
GET 2020. Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET 2020. Distinct Roles for Sialoside and Protein Receptors in Coronavirus Infection Extract
GET 2020. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis for COVID-19 drug repurposing. Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 entry in host cells-multiple targets for treatment and prevention. Extract

3CL proteinase and main proteinase is the same

  • GET ä. Why Are Lopinavir and Ritonavir Effective against the Newly Emerged Coronavirus 2019? Atomistic Insights into the Inhibitory Mechanisms Extract
  • GET ä. Potential covalent drugs targeting the main protease of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus Extract
  • GET 2020. Molecular docking and dynamics simulation of FDA approved drugs with the main protease from 2019 novel coronavirus Extract
  • GET 2020. Identification of potential binders of the main protease 3CLpro of the COVID-19 via structure-based ligand design and molecular modeling Extract
  • GET 2020. Comprehensive Insights into the Catalytic Mechanism of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome 3C-Like Protease and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 3C-Like Protease Extract
  • GET 2020. Unrevealing sequence and structural features of novel coronavirus using in silico approaches: The main protease as molecular target Extract
  • GET 2020. Prediction of the SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) 3C-like protease (3CL pro) structure: virtual screening reveals velpatasvir, ledipasvir, and other drug repurposing candidates Extract
  • GET 2020. Structural plasticity of SARS-CoV-2 3CL M(pro) active site cavity revealed by room temperature X-ray crystallography. Extract


  • GET 2020. An 81 nucleotide deletion in SARS-CoV-2 ORF7a identified from sentinel surveillance in Arizona (Jan-Mar 2020) Extract
  • GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 and ORF3a: Nonsynonymous Mutations, Functional Domains, and Viral Pathogenesis Extract
  • GET 2020. Extended ORF8 Gene Region Is Valuable in the Epidemiological Investigation of SARS-similar Coronavirus. Extract
  • GET 2020. The ORF3a protein of SARS-CoV-2 induces apoptosis in cells. Extract
  • GET 2020. The ORF6, ORF8 and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2 inhibit type I interferon signaling pathway. Extract
  • GET 2020. Molecular conservation and differential mutation on ORF3a gene in Indian SARS-CoV2 genomes. Extract
  • GET 2020. Immune evasion via SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 protein? Extract


GET 2020. SARS-CoV-2 strategically mimics proteolytic activation of human ENaC. Extract
  • GET ä. Protein Structure and Sequence Reanalysis of 2019-nCoV Genome Refutes Snakes as Its Intermediate Host and the Unique Similarity between Its Spike Protein Insertions and HIV-1 Extract
GET ä. Extreme genomic CpG deficiency in SARS-CoV-2 and evasion of host antiviral defense Extract
  • GET ä. The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET 2020. Codon Usage and Phenotypic Divergences of SARS-CoV-2 Genes Extract
  • GET 2020. Cytosine drives evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Extract
  • GET ä. From SARS and MERS CoVs to SARS?CoV?2: Moving toward more biased codon usage in viral structural and nonstructural genes Extract
  • GET 2020. Coding potential and sequence conservation of SARS-CoV-2 and related animal viruses Extract
  • GET 2020. A comprehensive analysis of genome composition and codon usage patterns of emerging coronaviruses Extract
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