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PHA retargeted compounds


32442287 2020. Thymosin alpha 1 (Talpha1) reduces the mortality of severe COVID-19 by restoration of lymphocytopenia and reversion of exhausted T cells.

32588453 2020. Covid-19 and Thymoquinone: Connecting the Dots.

32419212 2020. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in COVID-19: Is it stimulating more than just the bone marrow?
32576980 2020. GM-CSF-based treatments in COVID-19: reconciling opposing therapeutic approaches.
32559419 2020. Therapeutic blockade of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation: challenges and opportunities.

hzVSF‐v13 Humanized virus suppressing factor‐variant 13 (hzVSF‐v13) is a monoclonal IgG4 against vimentin, which is expressed on the surface of virus‐infected cells.
32458425 2020. Compassionate use of hzVSF-v13 in two patients with severe COVID-19.

32510814 2020. Omalizumab and COVID19 Treatment: Could It Help? Anti-IgE mab, -IL6,-TNF,-IL1,-NFKB

32505756 2020. Almitrine as a non-ventilatory strategy to improve intrapulmonary shunt in COVID-19 patients.
32505755 2020. Effect of almitrine bismesylate and inhaled nitric oxide on oxygenation in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome.
32512007 2020. Efficacy of Almitrine in The Treatment of Hypoxemia in Sars-Cov-2 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

32515982 2020. H2S as a potential defence against COVID-19?
32409956 2020. Possible application of H2S-producing compounds in therapy of coronavirus (COVID-19) infection and pneumonia.

32327293 ä. Oleoylethanolamide, A Bioactive Lipid Amide, as A Promising Treatment Strategy for Coronavirus/COVID-19

Lauric acid nat. compd.

Dipyridamole retarget
32318327 ä. Potential therapeutic effects of dipyridamole in the severely ill patients with COVID-19

CGRP calcitonin gene related peptide antagonists
32386433 2020. Could CGRP Antagonists Be Helpful in the Fight Against COVID-19?

Various Leads

32251767 2020. Remdesivir, lopinavir, emetine, and homoharringtonine inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro
32226695 ä. Acetazolamide, Nifedipine and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Rationale for Their Utilization as Adjunctive Countermeasures in the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

BRD4 polycomb
32495654 2020. Targeting SARS-CoV-2 using polycomb inhibitors as antiviral agents.

32245264 2020. Emetine, Ipecac, Ipecac Alkaloids and Analogues as Potential Antiviral Agents for Coronaviruses

Sodium pyruvate
32378817 2020. Inhaled Nebulized Sodium Pyruvate Use in COVID-19 Patients

32362440 ä. Therapeutic potential of ciclesonide inhalation for COVID-19 pneumonia: Report of three cases
32593491 2020. Molecular pharmacology of ciclesonide against SARS-CoV-2.
32402512 2020. A Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Treated With Ciclesonide.

32352081 ä. Perspectives for the use of therapeutic Botulinum toxin as a multifaceted candidate drug to attenuate COVID-19

Endothelin antagonists
32361169 2020. Why not consider an endothelin receptor antagonist against SARS?CoV?2?
32360293 2020. Endothelin receptor antagonists for pulmonary arterial hypertension and COVID-19: Friend or foe?

Rho kinase inhibitors
32283223 2020. Plausibility of therapeutic effects of Rho kinase inhibitors against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19)
32430287 2020. Rho kinase inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome: Support from Bartter's and Gitelman's syndrome patients.

32353743 2020. Purposing Saikosaponins for the treatment of COVID-19
32345124 2020. An in-silico evaluation of different Saikosaponins for their potency against SARS-CoV-2 using NSP15 and fusion spike glycoprotein as targets

ADAM17 as target
32291449 ä. ADAM17 inhibition may exert a protective effect on COVID-19

32405422 2020. Review of safety and minimum pricing of nitazoxanide for potential treatment of COVID-19.
32360581 ä. Nitazoxanide/Azithromycin combination for COVID-19: A suggested new protocol for COVID-19 early management


32312290 2020. Salvage use of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the setting of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 in the USA: a Markov decision analysis
31856018 2020. Is there a role for tissue plasminogen activator as a novel treatment for refractory COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome?

32427774 2020. Early Outcomes with Utilization of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in COVID-19 Associated Respiratory Distress: A series of five cases.

32427773 2020. Rescue Therapy for Severe COVID-19 Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) with Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA): A Case Series.

32275753 ä. Plasminogen improves lung lesions and hypoxemia in patients with COVID-19

32531538 2020. Is hesperidin essential for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 Infection?

32534337 2020. Diacerein: A potential multi-target therapeutic drug for COVID-19.

32307653 ä. CD147 as a Target for COVID-19 Treatment: Suggested Effects of Azithromycin and Stem Cell Engagement

Bee venom
32360140 ä. Bee venom and SARS-CoV-2

32339387 2020. COVID-19, pulmonary mast cells, cytokine storms, and beneficial actions of luteolin

Pannexin1 channels
32519892 2020. Consideration of Pannexin 1 channels in COVID-19 pathology and treatment.

32534944 2020. Influence of NAD+ as an ageing-related immunomodulator on COVID 19 infection: A hypothesis.

32347602 2020. Should we try the antiinflammatory natural product, celastrol, for COVID-19?

32352871 2020. A Radiation Mitigator as a Potential Treatment for COVID-19

C7203037 ä. (Vitamin-C; Ozone)Two known therapies could be useful as adjuvant therapy in critical patients infected by COVID-19?
32462858 2020. Oxygen-ozone therapy as adjuvant in the current emergency in SARS-COV-2 infection: a clinical study.

stimulating the Platelets

32315397 2020. Promoting platelets is a therapeutic option to combat severe viral infection of the lung

23607598 2013. (x)Involvement of high mobility group box 1 and the therapeutic effect of recombinant thrombomodulin in a mouse model of severe acute respiratory distress syndrome

32345532 2020. Response to: Bioactive Lipids and Coronavirus (COVID-19)-further Discussion.

32429572 2020. The Role of Lipid Metabolism in COVID-19 Virus Infection and as a Drug Target.
32408699 2020. Essential Oils as Antiviral Agents. Potential of Essential Oils to Treat SARS-CoV-2 Infection: An In-Silico Investigation.
32457038 2020. Potential COVID-19 therapeutics from a rare disease: Weaponizing lipid dysregulation to combat viral infectivity.

32416413 2020. Covid-19 management with inflammation resolving mediators? Perspectives and potential

32534226 2020. Monoclonal antibody as a potential anti-COVID-19.
32514101 2020. First antibody against COVID-19 spike protein enters phase I.
32422645 2020. Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by a human monoclonal SARS-CoV antibody.
32512271 2020. An approach towards development of monoclonal IgY antibodies against SARS CoV-2 spike protein (S) using phage display method: A review.

32391920 2020. Consider TLR5 for new therapeutic development against COVID-19.

32529963 2020. Can lactoferrin boost human immunity against COVID-19?

Ursodeoxycholic acid
32505909 2020. Ursodeoxycholic acid as a candidate therapeutic to alleviate and/or prevent COVID-19-associated cytokine storm.
32575350 2020. Merit of an Ursodeoxycholic Acid Clinical Trial in COVID-19 Patients.

Diethylcarbamazine anti-filarial
32492560 2020. Is the anti-filarial drug diethylcarbamazine useful to treat COVID-19?


32504751 2020. A novel role of nifuroxazide in attenuation of sepsis-associated acute lung and myocardial injuries; role of TLR4/NLPR3/IL-1beta signaling interruption.

32472655 2020. Cytokine storm in COVID-19 and parthenolide: preclinical evidence.

32505070 2020. Nebulized Lidocaine in COVID-19, An Hypothesis.

32441805 2020. Severe Acute Lung Injury Related to COVID-19 Infection: A Review and the Possible Role for Escin. Methioninase
32503816 2020. Oral Methioninase for Covid-19 Methionine-restriction Therapy.

C7186126 ä. Proposed use of thalidomide for the cytokine storm of COVID-19
32508009 2020. Thalidomide combined with low-dose short-term glucocorticoid in the treatment of critical Coronavirus Disease 2019.

32574274 2020. Thalidomide-Revisited: Are COVID-19 Patients Going to Be the Latest Victims of Yet Another Theoretical Drug-Repurposing?

PARP inh
32441764 2020. Repositioning PARP inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19); a new multi-pronged therapy for ARDS?

P selectin block
32464083 2020. P-selectin blockade in COVID-19-related ARDS.

32574958 2020. Targeting innate immunity by blocking CD14: Novel approach to control inflammation and organ dysfunction in COVID-19 illness.

Proteasome inh
32443911 2020. Proteasome Inhibitors as a Possible Therapy for SARS-CoV-2.
32442437 2020. The proteasome as a druggable target with multiple therapeutic potentialities: Cutting and non-cutting edges.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress
32454157 2020. Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress and anti-viral activities: A novel therapeutic target for COVID-19.
32561291 2020. Endoplasmic reticulum as a potential therapeutic target for covid-19 infection management?

Lysosomes, Autophagy, Membranes
32522674 2020. Widely available lysosome targeting agents should be considered as potential therapy for COVID-19.
32522067 2020. Autophagy as an emerging target for COVID-19: lessons from an old friend, chloroquine.
32521191 2020. Open questions for harnessing autophagy-modulating drugs in the SARS-CoV-2 war: hope or hype?
32425923 2020. Could the Inhibition of Endo-Lysosomal Two-Pore Channels (TPCs) by the Natural Flavonoid Naringenin Represent an Option to Fight SARS-CoV-2 Infection?
32449802 2020. May we target double membrane vesicles and oxysterol-binding protein to combat SARS-CoV-2 infection?
32342366 2020. Autophagie - ein Ansatzpunkt fur ein Medikament gegen COVID-19? : Kampf gegen das Coronavirus.
32567972 2020. Autophagy and SARS-CoV-2 infection: Apossible smart targeting of the autophagy pathway.

32516655 2020. Pulmonary delivery of nanostructured lipid carriers for effective repurposing of salinomycin as an antiviral agent.

32405226 2020. Anti-malarial drug, artemisinin and its derivatives for the treatment of respiratory diseases.

32431755 2020. The novel immunomodulatory biologic LMWF5A for pharmacological attenuation of the "cytokine storm" in COVID-19 patients: a hypothesis.

Quarternary ammonium compounds
32451736 2020. Repurposing Quaternary Ammonium Compounds as Potential Treatments for COVID-19.

Kv1.3 chanels
32581194 2020. Targeting lymphocyte Kv1.3-channels to suppress cytokine storm in severe COVID-19: Can it be a novel therapeutic strategy?

32569833 2020. Exportin 1 inhibition as antiviral therapy.

32560203 2020. Quinoxaline Derivatives as Antiviral Agents: A Systematic Review.

32575019 2020. Pirfenidone: A novel hypothetical treatment for COVID-19.
32594204 2020. The added value of pirfenidone to fight inflammation and fibrotic state induced by SARS-CoV-2 : Anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic therapy could solve the lung complications of the infection?
32525005 2020. Effective block by pirfenidone, an antifibrotic pyridone compound (5-methyl-1-phenylpyridin-2[H-1]-one), on hyperpolarization-activated cation current: An additional but distinctive target.

32536564 2020. IL-15 immunotherapy is a viable strategy for COVID-19.

32587806 2020. A potential role for Galectin-3 inhibitors in the treatment of COVID-19.

32603531 2020. Febuxostat therapy in outpatients with suspected COVID-19: A clinical trial.

32547693 2020. A Role for Metal-Based Drugs in Fighting COVID-19 Infection? The Case of Auranofin.

32384906 2020. Use of triiodothyronine to treat critically ill COVID-19 patients: a new clinical trial.

32594322 2020. Antiviral activity of berberine.

32571773 2020. Oseltamivir for coronavirus illness: post-hoc exploratory analysis of an open-label, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial in European primary care from 2016 to 2018.

32335281 ä. Pharmacological perspective: glycyrrhizin may be an efficacious therapeutic agent for COVID-19

32077621 2020. Glycyrrhizic-Acid-Based Carbon Dots with High Antiviral Activity by Multisite Inhibition Mechanisms

32458502 2020. Glycyrrhetinic acid and its derivatives as potential alternative medicine to relieve symptoms in nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients.
32592716 2020. Glycyrrhizin: An alternative drug for the treatment of COVID-19 infection and the associated respiratory syndrome?
32574273 2020. Symptomatic Protective Action of Glycyrrhizin (Licorice) in COVID-19 Infection?
32543164 2020. The comparison of the effectiveness of lincocin(R) and azitro(R) in the treatment of covid-19-associated pneumonia: A prospective study.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors pd1
32544799 2020. Immune checkpoint inhibitors: a physiology-driven approach to the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019.

32551855 2020. Effects of Gene-Eden-VIR and Novirin on SARS-CoV: Implications for COVID-19.

32297520 2020. Can spironolactone be used to prevent COVID-19-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with hypertension?
32551456 2020. Use of Spironolactone in SARS-CoV-2 ARDS Patients.
32513242 2020. Blocking mineralocorticoid receptor with spironolactone may have a wide range of therapeutic actions in severe COVID-19 disease.

32554324 2020. Noradrenergic and serotonergic drugs may have opposing effects on COVID-19 cytokine storm and associated psychological effects.

beta adrenergic antagonists
32388480 2020. Can beta-adrenergic blockers be used in the treatment of COVID-19?

alpha1 adrenergic antagonists
32352407 2020. Preventing cytokine storm syndrome in COVID-19 using alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonists
32237190 ä. What does androgenetic alopecia have to do with COVID?19? An insight into a potential new therapy

32540604 2020. Iodine, a preventive and curative agent in the COVID-19 pandemic?

32600410 2020. Boning up: amino-bisphophonates as immunostimulants and endosomal disruptors of dendritic cell in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

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